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Beyond User-Centered Design and User Experience: Designing for User Performance
  Larry Constantine
  Download .PDF file from IBMArticle [#128]: 2006 |  Adobe .PDF File: about 174K.
  Abstract: The shortcomings and limitations of user-centered and user experience design are considered and contrasted with usage-centered design. The iterative, trial-and-error approach of traditional user-centered approaches is argued to lead to excessive dependence on user testing and user approval, leading to overly conservative designs. By contrast, model-driven approaches based on fine-grained task models have a proven record of leading to dramatic improvements in user performance through innovative designs. 
  Keywords: usage-centered design, user-centered design, experience design, user performance, usability testing, innovation
  Preprint Cutter IT Journal, 17 (2), February, 2004.
  Download .PDF file from IBMArticle [#128]: 2006 |  Adobe .PDF File: about 174K.